Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

General Information

Q: What equipment and materials are needed to establish a laboratory for RIA? [pdf]
Q: How can nuclear technologies help improving livestock productivity?
Q: How can nuclear technologies be used in livestock breeding and reproductive management?
  Historically, radioimmunoassay has been the dominant technology in this field. The RIA employs radioisotopes in the measurement the concentration of a given molecule in a biological sample. For reproduction, the most commonly measured molecule has been progesterone and its measurement has allowed for monitoring of the reproduction cycle of livestock and improvement of the efficiency of artificial insemination programs. Radioisotopes also serve as the basis for a number of technologies that deal with the labelling of nucleotides.

By incorporating radioisotopes into oligonucleotide probes, researchers have a way to identify DNA polymorphism and/or measure the quantity of DNA or RNA in a given biological sample. Polymorphism in DNA allows for identification of genes influencing traits of interest (thus, marker assisted selection), confirmation of parentage, and molecular genetic characterization of breeds for genetic conservation. The quantification of DNA or RNA allows for measurement of gene expression. Nuclear techniques are also the basis for Radiation Hybrid Mapping, a technology that is used for physical determination of the location of genes in the genome. In many cases, the nuclear-based forms of these technologies are not always the optimal choice. Therefore, other similar technologies, such as enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) or fluorescent labelling of nucleotides can be substituted for their nuclear counterpart.
Q: How do nuclear technologies help control livestock diseases?
Q: What are the major livestock diseases addressed by APH projects?
Q: What does sustainable livestock production mean?
Q: How does IAEA support research in developing countries?
Q: What are CRP and TC projects?
Q: How do I submit an application for a CRP or TC project?
Q: How do I apply to attend a training course?

On Avian Influenza

Q: Are there vaccines for animals ?
Q: How effective is vaccination ?
Q: How easily does the virus spread from bird to bird?
Q: How can the disease be diagnosed in animals?
Q: How can the H5N1 strain of HPAI virus be identified ?
Q: Where can I ask for standard operating procedures or guidelines?
Q: Whom can I contact for advice?
Q: Should we be concerned?
Q: Should I keep all my birds in house and limit contact to wild or free-range birds?