Technical & Learning Resources


Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay(ELISA)
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
DNA microsatellite analysis
Quantification of tannins in tree and shrub foliage
Estimation of microbial protein supply in ruminants
  Microbial cells formed as a result of rumen digestion of carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions are a major source of protein for ruminants. They provide the majority of the amino acids that the host animal requires for tissue maintenance, growth and production. In roughage-fed ruminants, micro-organisms are virtually the only source of protein. Therefore, the knowledge of the microbial contribution to the nutrition of the host animal is paramount to developing feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant production. While this factor has been recognised for many years, it has been extremely difficult to determine the microbial protein contribution to ruminant nutrition.

The methods generally used for determining microbial protein production depend on the use of natural microbial markers such as RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DAPA (diamino pimelic acid) or of radioisotopes 35S, 15N or 32P. However, the need to use post-ruminally cannulated animals and complicated procedures to determine digesta flow are major limitations.

Under the CRP (D3.10.21) "Use of Nuclear and Colorimetric Techniques for Measuring Microbial Protein Supply from Local Feed Resources in Ruminant Animals", a new and simpler technique has been developed based on the measurement of purine derivatives in the urine. This technique is simple, non-invasive and does not require surgical intervention on the animal.
Urea Molasses Multinutrient Blocks
Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle
Selective Breeding and Gene Technologies
General Information
Nuclear Glossary [106 kb, pdf]


DNA Replication [Quicktime]
DNA Structure [Quicktime]
Polymerase Chain Reaction [Quicktime]
Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) [Flash Movie]
Restriction Enzymes (RE) [Flash Movie]