Technical & Learning Resources


Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay(ELISA)
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
DNA microsatellite analysis
Quantification of tannins in tree and shrub foliage
Estimation of microbial protein supply in ruminants
Urea Molasses Multinutrient Blocks
  Urea molasses multinutrient blocks As the name suggests, these are lick blocks containing urea, molasses, vitamins, minerals and other multinutrients. The feeding of the blocks is a convenient and inexpensive method of providing a range of nutrients required by both the rumen microbes and the animal, which may be deficient in the diet. The main justification for using the blocks depends on their convenience for packaging, storage, transport and ease of feeding. The ingredients are designed to provide a wide rage of nutrients to cover all potential deficiencies. In the wet tropical regions minerals are often deficient in cut and carry grass or crop residue feeding systems. Grasses from road sides or wastelands are particularly low in minerals as generally, no fertilizer is used and the grasses have often been cut for decades for ruminant production, thus depleting the reserves of both soils and plants.

Related Resources
- Frequently asked questions on Urea-Molasses-Multinutrient Blocks Technology (UMMB) [pdf]
- Feeding Urea-Molasses Multinutrient Blocks (UMMB): report from studies in Africa [pdf]
- Feeding Urea-Molasses Multinutrient Blocks (UMMB): report from studies in Asia [pdf]
- Urea-Molasses Multinutrient Blocks (UMMB): A strategic feed supplement [pdf], (also available as flash [swf]
- Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages [pdf]. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and held in Cairo, Egypt, 25-29 November 2000.
Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle
Selective Breeding and Gene Technologies
General Information
Nuclear Glossary [106 kb, pdf]


DNA Replication [Quicktime]
DNA Structure [Quicktime]
Polymerase Chain Reaction [Quicktime]
Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) [Flash Movie]
Restriction Enzymes (RE) [Flash Movie]