Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems Used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns


To improve the efficiency of pre-SIT-release fly population suppression operations and entomological monitoring of target tsetse fly species by developing better visual and odor attractants.


Visual and odour attractants are used to (i) suppress fly populations (target technology), (ii) monitor tsetse fly population dynamics, impact of control measures, dispersal of released sterile males, etc., and (iii) create artificial barriers to prevent reinfestation of tsetse into freed areas. For some Glossina species of the Morsitans-group (savannah tsetse fly species), the available odour attractants used with insecticide impregnated targets are sufficiently effective to result in substantial reductions of fly population densities over short placement periods. The same attractants, however, are less effective for other species that are potential candidates for SIT campaigns. For a few tsetse species, such as G. austeni, virtually no odour attractants are known and very high densities of traps/targets are required over excessive placement periods: To suppress a target fly population of G. austeni on Zanzibar, more than 80 insecticide-impregnated targets were needed per km2 for more than 18 months, whereas good attractants available for other tsetse species require only 4 to 8 targets per km2 for a period of 3 to 6 months.

The key tsetse species covered under this CRP include Glossina austeni, G. fuscipes fuscipes, G. palpalis gambiensis, G. swynnertoni and G. tachinoides. Laboratory and field methods used for tsetse attractant research require standardization. Parameters, such as vegetation, topography and climate (macro- and micro-climatic factors, humidity, thermal stimuli) may influence trapping results and need to be addressed.

In addition to testing odours known to be effective with other tsetse species, specific research approaches were directed at (i) exploring practical sources of C02 (biosynthesis, C02 mimics), (ii) assessing the role of odour "blends" and (iii) conducting structure activity tests of stereometric related, synthesized "candidate" odours.


Six Contract Holders from Burkina-Faso, Hungary, Kenya, Mali, Tanzania and Uganda; and three Agreement Holders from Switzerland, UK and the USA.


  • The final Evaluation Report summarizes achievements under this six-year CRP (1996-2002)
  • Final report of a co-ordinated research project. 1996-2002. [Download pdf]