Manuals & Protocols

Fruit flies // Tsetse flies // Moths // Screwworm // Mosquitoes // Miscellaneous

Fruit flies

FAO/IAEA/USDA. Product Quality Control for Sterile Mass-Reared and Released Tephritid Fruit Flies, Version 7.0. [pdf]. FAO/IAEA/USDA. Product Quality Control for Sterile Mass-Reared and Released Tephritid Fruit Flies, Version 7.0. [pdf]. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (2019).
Fruit Sampling Guidelines for Area-Wide Fruit Fly Programmes Fruit Sampling Guidelines for Area-Wide Fruit Fly Programmes[.pdf]. This guideline has been prepared to support decision making on the strategic planning and implementation of the fruit sampling as a component of a surveillance system in AW-IPM programmes. It is also aimed at serving programme managers as a guide to define the necessary resources that should be allocated to this important activity.
Use of Entomopathogenic Fungi for Fruit Fly Control in Area-Wide SIT Programmes Use of Entomopathogenic Fungi for Fruit Fly Control in Area-Wide SIT Programmes[.pdf]. This document presents a review of different studies that support the use of entomopathogenic fungi to suppress fruit fly populations. It describes the process to characterize pathogenic fungi strains, the inoculation process of sterile flies, handling of the sterile flies used as vectors, biosecurity recommendations and release densities of inoculated sterile flies, as well as the density of the disseminator devices. The integrated use of the SIT and Microbial Control as components of area-wide management strategies is presented. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (August 2019). Spanish version
Manual and Spreadsheet for Assessment of Sterile Insect Release Densities Manual and Spreadsheet for Assessment of Sterile Insect Release Densities.[pdf]. This Excel spreadsheet model is a valuable tool for optimization of sterile insect release programmes in particular for fruit flies. This spreadsheet model has been validated and it is being used routinely in large-scale operational field programmes. The investment that programmes conduct in SIT application (including production and release of sterile insects) is very substantial; therefore, an efficient use of the sterile insects is fundamental to provide economic feasibility to SIT programmes.
Plan de Acción en Caso de Detección de Moscas de la Fruta No-Nativas Reguladas del Género Bactrocera spp En América Latina y El Caribe Plan de Acción en Caso de Detección de Moscas de la Fruta No-Nativas Reguladas del Género Bactrocera spp En América Latina y El Caribe.[pdf]. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Organismo Internacional Regional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (OIRSA). Vienna, Austria (May 2019). .
Dashboard for Managers of Sterile Insect Technique Production Facilities. Dashboard for Managers of Sterile Insect Technique Production Facilities. The Dashboard is composed of an Excel spreadsheet and a graphic display. It has been designed primarily for managers and staff as a working tool to monitor insect mass-rearing operations at production facilities. This mass-rearing metrics allows managers to follow their daily production performance in a Dashboard format. Monitoring operation activities helps to quickly identify production problems, take corrective actions, and measure their impact on improving processes and planning.
Update of the technical leaflet released in six languages on the discrimination between two invasive Bactrocera fruit fly pests. Update of the technical leaflet released in six languages on the discrimination between two invasive Bactrocera fruit fly pests. Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly) sometimes overlaps in terms of distribution with Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly). A technical leaflet to help to discriminate among these two invasive pest species, was updated and produced in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. The leaflet will be useful for countries and regions where these species are present or at risk of incursion helping to implement the recommended emergency response and is now available to regulatory agencies, surveillance and identification staff, growers of horticultural products and other stakeholders. It was prepared by Marc De Meyer (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium) and Ian White (formerly research associate Natural History Museum, UK).
Trapping guideline for Area-Wide Fruit Fly Programmes Trapping Guideline for Area-Wide Fruit Fly Programmes [pdf]. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (January 2018).
Manual para diferenciar moscas de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) silvestres Manual para diferenciar moscas de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) silvestres. This manual includes standardised and updated procedures to determine the fertility or sterility of irradiated adults of wild and genetic sexing Anastrepha ludens strains. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (January 2018).
Guideline for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes Guideline for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes [pdf]. This guideline is an updated version of the one published in 2007. It is aimed at providing harmonized processes involved in the handling and release of sterile insects after production in mass rearing facilities to FAO or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) member countries that want to embark on sterile insect technique (SIT) activities. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (August 2017). ISBN 78-92-5-109891-2.
Fruit Sampling Guidelines for Area-Wide Fruit Fly Programmes Fruit Sampling Guidelines for Area-Wide Fruit Fly Programmes. These guidelines are aimed at facilitating the transfer of harmonized sampling procedures to National Plant Protection Organizations and horticultural industry of FAO and IAEA Member States that want to apply fruit sampling procedures for fruit fly population survey in area-wide action programmes. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria, (June 2017).
The Use of Mathematics in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management The Use of Mathematics in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes Using the Sterile Insect Technique with a Special Focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria, (September 2016). ISBN 978-92-5-109190-6.
Manual to Differentiate Wild Mediterranean Fruit Flies Ceratitis capitata Manual to Differentiate Wild Mediterranean Fruit Flies Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) from non-irradiated (Fertile) and Irradiated (Sterile) VIENNA Temperature Sensitive Lethal Strain Flies. This manual includes standardised and updated procedures to determine the fertility or sterility of adults of the VIENNA Mediterranean fruit fly temperature sensitive lethal (TSL) strains. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (June 2016). ISBN 978-92-5-109055-8.
The FAO/IAEA Spreadsheet for Designing and Operation of Insect Mass Rearing Facilities The FAO/IAEA Spreadsheet for Designing and Operation of Insect Mass Rearing Facilities [pdf]. FAO Plant Production and Protection and Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, FAO, Roma, Italy (2012). ISBN 978-92-5-107315-5.
Interactive Spreadsheet [xls].
Identification of Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), in The Eastern Mediterranean Identification of Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), in The Eastern Mediterranean, Ian M. White, The Natural History Museum, London, UK (2001).
Action Plan Peach Fruit Fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) Action Plan Peach Fruit Fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) [pdf]. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (2000).

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Tsetse flies

Guidelines for Blood Collection, Processing and Quality Control for Tsetse Rearing Insectaries, Version 2.0 [pdf]. Vienna, Austria  (2019) Guidelines for Blood Collection, Processing and Quality Control for Tsetse Rearing Insectaries, Version 2.0 [pdf]. Vienna, Austria (2019)[.pdf]. This document is intended for use in laboratories and institutions that maintain colonies of tsetse flies. It describes the procedures for the collection of animal blood in the abattoir, decontamination through ionizing radiation, preservation and storage, quality control assurance and processing of the blood into diet for feeding tsetse flies.
Standard Operating Procedures for Detection and Identification of Trypanosome Species in Tsetse Flies
Version 1.0 Standard Operating Procedures for Detection and Identification of Trypanosome Species in Tsetse Flies Version 1.0 [.pdf]. The manual provides an easy-to-use work flow that combines several different PCR-based methods that can be used for trypanosome detection and identification in field-caught tsetse flies and/or host blood samples collected from livestock and wildlife animals.
Standard Operating Procedures for Identification of Tsetse Species from Wild Populations and Laboratory Colonies Standard Operating Procedures for Identification of Tsetse Species from Wild Populations and Laboratory Colonies [pdf]. This document provides useful information to correctly identify specimens of nine tsetse flies species/subspecies derived from field collections or laboratory colonies using molecular techniques. Vienna, Austria (October 2018).
Guidelines for Mature Tsetse Sterile Male Pupae Packaging for Long Distance Shipment Guidelines for Mature Tsetse Sterile Male Pupae Packaging for Long Distance Shipment [pdf]. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (May 2017).
Standard operation procedure manual for sterile Tsetse release Standard operating procedure manual for sterile Tsetse release. This manual describes the standard procedures involved in preparing tsetse flies reared in a breeding facility for release in the field for the sterile insect technique (SIT). Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (November 2016).
Standard Operational Procedures to Detect and Manage Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (GpSGHV) in Tsetse Fly 'Factories' Standard Operational Procedures to Detect and Manage Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (GpSGHV) in Tsetse Fly 'Factories' [pdf]. Vienna, Austria (2015).
FAO-IAEA. Collection of Entomological Baseline Data for Tsetse Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes Collection of Entomological Baseline Data for Tsetse Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes [pdf]. FAO Animal and Heaalth Guidelines and Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. FAO, Roma, Italy (2008). ISBN 978-92-5-106158-9.
FAO/IAEA Standard Operating Procedures for Mass-Rearing Tsetse Flies Standard Operating Procedures for Mass-Rearing Tsetse Flies [pdf]. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (2006).
FAO-IAEA. Integrating the Sterile Insect Technique as a Key Component of Area-Wide Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Intervention Integrating the Sterile Insect Technique as a Key Component of Area-Wide Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Intervention [pdf]. PAAT Technical and Scientific Series. FAO Agriculture and Consumer Protection. FAO, Roma, Italy (2001). ISBN 92-5-104646-8.
A field guide for the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of African Animal Trypanosomosis A field guide for the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of African Animal Trypanosomosis [pdf]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome, Italy (1998). ISBN 92-5-104238-1.

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Moths

FAO-IAEA Rearing codling moth for the sterile insect technique Rearing codling moth for the sterile insect technique [pdf]. FAO Plant Production and Protection and Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, FAO, Roma, Italy (2010). ISBN 978-92-5-106548-8.
Cactoblastis cactorum. The biology, History, Threat, Surveillance and Control of the Cactus Moth Cactoblastis cactorum. The biology, History, Threat, Surveillance and Control of the Cactus Moth [pdf]. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (2007).

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Screwworm

Manual for the Control of the Screwworm Fly Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel Manual for the Control of the Screwworm Fly Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel [pdf]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome (1990).
Manuel de Lutte Contre la Lucilie Bouchére Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel Manuel de Lutte Contre la Lucilie Bouchére Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel [pdf]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome (1990).

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Mosquitoes

Guidance framework for testing the sterile insect technique as a vector control tool against Aedes-borne diseases Guidance framework for testing the sterile insect technique as a vector control tool against Aedes-borne diseases [pdf]. This document is intended to be a comprehensive guide for programme managers tasked with recommending a “go/no-go” decision on testing, full deployment and scale-up of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in regions of the world affected by diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. However, the authors hope that the material presented herein will be used more widely—by scientists, decision makers, review groups and others.
Guidelines for mass rearing of Aedes mosquitoes_v1.0 Guidelines For Mark-Release-Recapture Procedures of Aedes Mosquitoes_v1.0. [pdf]. The success of any Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) programme including a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) component relies on the ability of the irradiated sterile males to survive, disperse and compete sexually with their wild counterparts to induce sterility in wild females. In a phased conditional approach for such a programme, it is considered essential to estimate these quality control parameters (survival, dispersal and competitiveness) in field conditions using mark-release-recapture (MRR) trials during the baseline data collection phase before shifting to a pilot trial. The protocols presented in this guideline are the results of lessons from collaborations with Member States preparing SIT pilot trials against Aedes species.
Guidelines for mass rearing of Aedes mosquitoes_v1.0 Guidelines for mass rearing of Aedes mosquitoes_v1.0. [pdf]. The number and production capacity of mass-rearing insectaries for Aedes mosquitoes is increasing as the SIT technology is being validated in field pilot projects. These guidelines have been developed to provide a description of procedures required for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mass-rearing. It is a summary of necessary steps of larval and adult mass-rearing as used at the FAO/IAEA. This guide will be continuously updated considering the improvements brought to the mass-rearing of mosquitoes.
Manual and Spreadsheet for Assessment of Sterile Insect Release Densities Spreadsheet for Designing Aedes Mosquito Mass-Rearing and Release Facilities Version 1.0.[pdf]. The number and production capacity of mass rearing insectaries for mosquitos is expected to increase in the coming years. This FAO/IAEA interactive Excel Spreadsheet has been developed to assists in technical and economic decision making associated with design, costing, construction, equipping, and facility operation. The spreadsheet is user friendly and thus largely self-explanatory. Nevertheless, it includes a basic instruction manual that has been prepared to guide the user, and thus should be used together with the software.
Guidelines for Colonization of Aedes Mosquito Species - Version 1.0.  Guidelines for Colonization of Aedes Mosquito Species - Version 1.0. This document aims to provide a description of procedures required for the establishment of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus colonies in your insectary or laboratory. It presents a summary of the necessary steps such as collecting material from the field, species identification, and adapting your wild colony to laboratory conditions and artificial rearing procedures. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria, (May 2018).
Mosquitoes SIT trifold Mosquitoes SIT trifold [pdf]. The document contains in a nutshell a description of SIT use against mosquitoes from mass rearing to sterilization and release. It also contains basic elements necessary for the cost-effective application of area-wide SIT technology against mosquitoes vectors of disease. Vienna, Austria (April 2018).
Guidelines for routine Colony Maintenance of Aedes Mosquito Species Version 1.0. Guidelines for routine Colony Maintenance of Aedes Mosquito Species Version 1.0. [pdf]. This guideline aims to provide a description of procedures required for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus colony routine rearing. It is a summary of necessary steps such as optimizing climatic conditions in the insectary, egg hatching, larval rearing, pupal and larval sorting, sugar and blood feeding, egg collection, handling and storage, used at the FAO/IAEA Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) to build and maintain a lab colony. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria, (November 2017).
Guidelines for standardised mass rearing of Anopheles mosquitoes Guidelines for standardised mass rearing of Anopheles mosquitoes Version 1.0 [pdf]. The guideline provides a description of all procedures required for the mass-rearing of An. arabiensis using these newly designed adult cage and larval rearing unit, with a step-by-step guide to establishing, up-scaling and maintaining a large Anopheles colony, including all stages of the mosquito’s life cycle. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria, (October 2017).

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Miscellaneous

Technical Specification for an X-Ray System for the Irradiation of Insects for the Sterile Insect Technique and Other Related Technologies Technical Specification for an X-Ray System for the Irradiation of Insects for the Sterile Insect Technique and Other Related Technologies [pdf]. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (August 2017).
Manual for the Use of Stable Isotopes in Entomology Manual for the Use of Stable Isotopes in Entomology [pdf]. IAEA-SI. IAEA, Vienna (2009). ISBN 978-92-0-102209-7.
Model Business Plan for a Sterile Insect Production Facility Model Business Plan for a Sterile Insect Production Facility. IAEA-MPB. IAEA, Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (2008). ISBN 978-92-0-110007-8.
Designing and Implementing a Geographical Information System: A Guide for Managers of Area-Wide Pest Management Programmes Designing and Implementing a Geographical Information System: A Guide for Managers of Area-Wide Pest Management Programmes [pdf]. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (2006).
Gafchromic® dosimetry system for SIT - Standard operating procedure Gafchromic® dosimetry system for SIT - Standard operating procedure. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (2000).
Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Nuclear Techniques in Insect Research and Control - Third Edition Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Nuclear Techniques in Insect Research and Control - Third Edition [pdf]. IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 336. IAEA, Vienna (1992). ISBN 92-0-101792-8.
Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology [pdf]. Second Edition. IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 61. STI/DOC/10/61/2, IAEA, Vienna (1977). ISBN 92-0-115177-2.
Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology [pdf]. IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 61. STI/DOC/10/61, IAEA, Vienna (1966).

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