Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics (DMRP)

Information on publications relating to Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics

AbsorbedDose Determination in Photon and Electron Beams -- An International Code of Practice - 2nd Edition

Technical Reports Series No. 277

This second edition contains eight additional pages, summarizing recommended changes resulting from a review of data and procedures presented in the first edition. Otherwise, the report remains unchanged. The report itself represents a step towards a universal code advising users in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and radiation therapy centres throughout the world on how to obtain the absorbed dose from a measurement of exposure or another appropriate quantity. As the numerical result of a physical measurement must be complemented by an assessment of its uncertainty, Appendix A to this Code gives a brief summary of a treatment uncertainties concept by A. Allisy and J.W. Müller from the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM).

Contents: Introduction; Radiation quantities and units; Equipment l; Radiation quality specification and determination; Measurement chain; Formalism; Determination of absorbed dose to water; Details on correction factors; The uncertainty in absorbed dose determination at the reference point; Appendix A: Evaluation of uncertainties; Appendix B: Introduction to worksheets and flow diagrams.

STI/DOC/010/277/2 (98 pp., 16 figures; 1997)
E ISBN 92-0-100597-0
S ISBN 92-0-304198-2
Price: 26.16 Euro


The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon Beams - An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry

Technical Reports Series No. 381

This report both complements and extends IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 277, Absorbed Dose Determination in Photon and Electron Beams - An International Code of Practice, published in 1987. It describes options and how to calibrate plane parallel ionization chambers, against air kerma or absorbed dose to water standards at Cobalt 60 gamma ray energies. The use of these chambers to calibrate therapy electron beams, as well as relative dose measurements for photon and electron beams, is presented. This publication also updates some of the data and concepts used in Technical Reports Series No. 277. It fills gaps in the latter report with respect to plane parallel chambers with a view to improve accuracy in radiotherapy when these chambers are used.

Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Update of the information in TRS-277; 3. Equipment; 4. Beam quality specification; 5. NK based formalism and determination of ND,air for plane parallel ionization chambers; 6. ND,w based formalism and determination of ND,w factors for plane parallel ionization chambers; 7. Use of plane parallel chambers in electron beams; 8. Use of plane parallel chambers in photon beams; 9. The uncertainty in absorbed dose determination at the reference depth using plane parallel chambers in electron beams; 10. A code of practice for the calibration and use of plane parallel ionization chambers; Appendix A: Examples; Appendix B: Stopping power ratios in clinical electron beams; Appendix C: Chamber perturbation factors in electron and photon beams.

STI/DOC/010/381 (125 pp., 21 figures; 1997)
ISBN 92-0-104896-3
Price: 31.98 Euro


Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water

Technical Reports Series No. 398

This Code of Practice, which has also been endorsed by WHO, PAHO and ESTRO, fulfils the need for a systematic and internationally unified approach to the calibration of ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water and to the use of these detectors in determining the absorbed dose to water for the radiation beams used in radiotherapy. It provides a methodology for the determination of absorbed dose to water in the low, medium and high energy photon beams, photon beams, proton beams and heavy ion beams used for external radiation therapy.

Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Framework; 3. ND,w based formalism; 4. Implementation; 5. Code of Practice for 60Co gamma ray beams; 6. Code of Practice for high energy photon beams; 7. Code of Practice for high energy electron beams; 8. Code of Practice for low energy kilovoltage X ray beams; 9. Code of Practice for medium energy kilovoltage X ray beams; 10. Code of Practice for proton beams; 11. Code of Practice for heavy ion beams; Appendix I: Relation between NK and ND,w based Codes of Practice; Appendix II: Calculation of kQ,Q0 and its uncertainty; Appendix III: Photon beam quality specification; Appendix IV: Expression of uncertainties.

STI/DOC/010/398 (229 pp.; 29 figures; 2000)
ISBN 92-0-102200-X, English
51.00 Euro