(SE/P2-2) Safety and Economical Requirements of Conceptual Fusion Power Reactors in Co-existing Advanced Fission Plants

R. Salomaa1), S. Sipilš1), V. Tulkki1), G. Zemulis1)
 
1) Helsinki University of Technology, Association Euratom-Tekes, Espoo, Finland

Abstract.  An EPR fission plant is expected to operate from 2010 to 2070. In this time range a new generation of advance fission reactors and several stages of fusion reactors from ITER to DEMO will emerge. Their viability between the competitive environment and also their possible synergy benefits are discussed in this paper. The studied cases involve the Finnish EPR, Generation IV, and the EFDA Conceptual power plant study Models A-D. Cross-cutting issues of technologies are investigated including also supercritical water for cooling. The main concentration is on economic and safety assessments. We have reviewed several studies on the economic potential of both conceptual fusion power plants and those of Generation IV candidates. As a reference level we have used the present Finnish EPR. Comparison using various pricing methods are being studied for fusion and Generation IV: the mass flow analyzes together with engineering, construction and financial margins exhibit one method and another one on simple scalings between components or structures with common technology level. In all these studies fusion competitiveness has to be improved concerning plant availability and internal power recirculation. Present best fission plants have plant availability well above 90% and internal power circulation of the order of 3-4%. The operation and maintenance solutions of Model C and D show the right way. A remarkable rise of the fuel costs of present LWRs would make at first the Generation IV breeder options more competitive and thereafter fusion plants. We shall also discuss the costs of safety related components, like containment and equipment for severe accident mitigation such as the core catcher in a LWR, and to what extent the inherent fusion safety features could compensate such expenses. For an overall assessment of the various nuclear options considered we have used the results including both internal and external costs. Due to the long lead times we have used fuzzy optimization methods for assessing their viability. The biasing of various risk factors and human needs, indicates proper directions towards more acceptable NPP candidates.

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